Volume 1, Issue 1, May 2013, Page: 22-33
Motivation Toward English Language Learning of Students in Secondary and High Schools in Education Service Area Office 4, Saraburi Province, Thailand
Nakhon Kitjaroonchai, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Asia-Pacific International University, Saraburi Province, Thailand
Received: Apr. 2, 2013;       Published: Jun. 10, 2013
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijll.20130101.14      View  6049      Downloads  1255
This study aimed to investigate the English language learning motivation level of secondary and high schools students in Saraburi Province, and significant differences between the learning motivation of students with high academic achievement and that of other learners. A modified 20-item motivational survey adapted from Gardner’s (1985) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) was administered to 266 secondary and high school students in Education Service Area Office 4, Saraburi Province. The study results indicated that the students had high levels of motivation - both integrative and instrumental - to learn the English language, albeit their instrumental motivation slightly outperformed their integrative motivation. The study also showed that there was a significant difference (P-Value = 0.007) at the level of 0.01 between the learning motivation of students with high academic achievement (GPA≥3.20) and that of other peers (GPA ˂3.20).
Motivation, English Language Learning, Learning
To cite this article
Nakhon Kitjaroonchai, Motivation Toward English Language Learning of Students in Secondary and High Schools in Education Service Area Office 4, Saraburi Province, Thailand, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 22-33. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20130101.14
Al-Tamimi, A. & Shuib, M. (2009). Motivation and attitudes towards learning English: a study of petroleum Engineering undergraduates at Hadhramout University of Science and Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, Vol. 9(2), pp.29-55. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from:
ASEAN Curriculum Sourcebook. (2012). Retrieved: November 11, 2012, from :
ASEAN Secretariat. (2009). Roadmap for an ASEAN Community 2009-2015. Retrieved: November 11, 2012, from: /dl/ASEANblueprint.pdf
ASEAN Secretariat. (2012). Associations of Southeast Asia Nations: The founding of ASEAN. Retrieved: November 8, 2012, from:
Bangkok Post. (2010). English to be second language. Retrieved: November 10, 2012, from: http://www.udonmap. com/udonthaniforum/english-to-be-second-language-t18622.html
Biggs, A. (2012). AEC in 2015? That speels trouble. Retrieved: November 11, 2012, from
Brown, H.D.(2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
Choosri. C. & Intharaksa, U. (2011). Relationship between motivation and students’ English learning achievement: A study of the second year vocational certificate level Hatyai Technical College students. Retrieved: February 10, 2013, from Proceedings3/article//006.pdf
Clement, R. ; Dornyei, A. ; & Noels, K.A. (1994). Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language. Language Learning, 3. 417-448.
Cokley, K.; Barnard, N.; Cunningham, D.; & Motoike, J. (2001). A psychometric investigation of the academic motivation scale using a United States sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 127-136.
Darasawang, P. (2007). English language teaching and education in Thailand: A decade of change. Retrieved: November 9, 2012, from: 20Teaching%20and%20Education%20in%20Thailand_A%20Decade%20of%20Change.pdf
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
Dhanasobhon, S. (2007). English language teaching dilemma in Thailand. Kasetsart Educational Review, 22, pp 53-59.
Dornyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern LanguageJournal, 78, 273-284.
Dornyei, Z. & Clement, R. (2000). Motivational characteristics of learning different target languages: Results of a nationwide survey. Paper presented at the AAAL convention, Vancouver, Canada. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from: hi.pdf
Dornyei, Z.,& Otto, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics (Thames Valley University, London), no. 4: 43-69.
Dornyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. UK, Harlow: Pearson Education.
Durongphan, M. et al. (n.d.) The Development of English Teaching in Thailand: A Rattanakosin Experience.Thai TESOL, Bangkok: Aksorn Charoentat Publishing Company.
[19] EF English Proficiency Index Report (2011). Asia EF EPI Ranking. Retrieved November 5, 2012, from:
Elyildirim, S. & Ashton, S. (2006). Creating positive attitudes towards English as a foreign language. English Teaching Forum. 44, 4: 2-11.
Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation.London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R.C.& MacIntyre, P.D. (1993). A student’s contributions to second language learning. Part II: Affective variable. Language Teaching. 26: 1-11.
Gardner, R.C. (2007). Motivation and second language acquisition. Porta Linguarum 8, June 2007, 9-22
Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. (4th ed.). Essex: Longman.
Hashim, A. (1999). Cross-linguistic influence in the written English of Malay undergraduates. Journal of Modern Language, 12(1), 59-76.
Intathep L. (2012). English for taxi drivers. Retrieved: December 17, 2012, from: /learning/easier-stuff/303846/english-for-taxi-drivers
Kaewmala. (n.d). Thai Education Failures – Part 4: Dismal English-language training. Retrieved: November 6, 2012, from: failures-part-4-dismal-english-language- education/
Kitjaroonchai, N. & Kitjaroonchai, T. (2012). Motivation toward English language learning of Thai students majoring in English at Asia-Pacific International University. Catalyst, 7 (1), 21-40.
Krobkruakao. (2012).เลขาฯ-อาเซียนจี้ไทยเป็นศูนย์กลางตั้งทีวีอาเซียน Retrieved: November 11, 2012, from:ข่าว/62838/เลขาฯ-อาเซียนจี้ไทยเป็นศูนย์กลางตั้งทีวีอาเซียน.html
Kyriacou, C. & Zhu, D. (2008). Shanghai pupil’s motivation towards learning English and the perceived influence of important others. Educational Studies. Vol. 34, No. 2, May 2008, 97-104.
Lile, W.T. (2002). Motivation in the ESL classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, 8(1). Retrieved November 6, 2012, from:
Liuoliene, A. & Metiuniene, R. (2006) Second language learning motivation. Santalka. Filologija, Edukologija, T. 14 N. 2: 93-98. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from:
Liu, M. (2007). Chinese students’ motivation to learn English at the tertiary level. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 9, 126-146.
Nation. (2012). As AEC nears, members work on better English. Retrieved: November 15, 2012, from: 30178790.html
National Institute of Educational Testing Service (Public Organization) Thailand. (2011). Result of Ordinary National Educational Test 2010 (O-NET). Retrieved May 10, 2012, from: 9/bdaea64f96d90aeca0bb751dc827ca60.pdf
Online Business Dictionary. (2013). Motivation. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from: /definition/motivation.html
Online Oxford dictionaries. (2013). Motivation. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from: / definition/english/motivation
Qashoa, S. H. (2006). Motivation among learners of English in the secondary school in the Eastern Coast of the UAE. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from: http://www.asian-efl Sulaiman_ Hasan_Qashoa.pdf
Richmond, J.E. (2007). Bringing critical thinking to the education of developing country professionals. International Education Journal 8(1), 1-29.
Saraithong, W. & Chanchareonchai, K. (2012). The determinants of new coming workers’ English proficiency in the ASEAN Economic Community: A Case of Thai vocational students. Retrieved: November 15, 2012, from:
Spaulding, C. L. (1992). Motivation in the classroom. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Spolsky, B. (2000). Anniversary article: Language motivation revisited. Applied Linguistics 21(2),157-169.
Wan-er, Z. (2008). Motivation and language learning in the context of China. Sino-US English Teaching, April 2008, 5, (4),(serial no.52).
Wang, F. (2008). Motivation and English achievement: An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of a new measurement for Chinese students of English learning. North American Journal of Psychology, 2008, 10, 3, 633-646.
Watcharapunyawong S. & Usaha S. (2012). Thai EFL students’ writing errors in different text types: The interference of the first language. Retrieved March 5, 2013, from php/elt/article/ view/23044/14794
Wiriyachitra, A. (2001). English language teaching and learning in Thailand in this decade. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from: resources/downloads/English%20Language%20 Teach ing%20and%20Learning%20in%20Thailand.pdf
Wiriyapong, N. (2012). Electronics workforce: Skill upgrade + English needed. Retrieved November 16, 2012, from:
Yi-Guang, L. et al. (2003). College student intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation and learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 13, 251-258.
Browse journals by subject