Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Page: 263-272
Summarizing Strategies and Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Students
Hooshang Khoshsima, Faculty of Management and Humanities, Chabahar Maritime University, Iran
Maryam Rabani Nia, Faculty of Management and Humanities, Chabahar Maritime University, Iran
Received: Jun. 23, 2014;       Accepted: Jul. 7, 2014;       Published: Jul. 20, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijll.20140204.14      View  2970      Downloads  283
Improving writing instruction has been the focus of educational researchers during the last three decades. Instructions in writing strategies i.e. planning, drafting, revising have showed a dramatic effect on the students’ quality of writing. Moreover, the use of reading and reading strategies like summarization in writing classes has generated a great deal of debate. Employing the overlap of reading and writing strategies as a framework, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible relationship between explicit teaching of summarizing strategies and writing achievement. The study used a Quasi-experimental design. Two groups of intermediate efl students were assigned to experimental and control group. According to Nelson Proficiency test results, both groups were nearly at the same proficiency level. The experimental group, in addition to writing instruction, was taught summarizing strategies explicitly through CALLA. The control group only received the writing instruction in traditional way. The result of writing pre and posttest showed the positive effect of summarizing instruction on students’ writing ability. Comparing the mean score of experimental group on writing posttest (M= 14.6) with the mean score of control group on writing post-test (M= 12.8) revealed that groups have significant difference (P= .000 < .05) and the experimental group outperformed the control group in writing posttest. Therefore, it was concluded that explicit summarizing strategy instruction could be used effectively for Iranian language teaching and learning specially for improvement of their writing proficiency and improving the strategy use.
Summarizing, Explicit Strategy Training, Writing Instruction, Summarizing Strategies
To cite this article
Hooshang Khoshsima, Maryam Rabani Nia, Summarizing Strategies and Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Students, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 263-272. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20140204.14
Akincilar, Vildan. (2010). The Effect of " PLEASE" Strategy Training Trough the Self-regulated Strategy Development(SRSD) Model on Fifth Grade Students' Decriptive Writing: Strategy Training On Planning. Dissertation and Thesis database , 1-259.
Arnaudet, M.L & Barrett, M.E. (1990). Paragraph Development: A guide for students of English. Washington, D.C.: By Prentice Hall Regents, Prentice-hall, Inc.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. New York: Pearson Education.
Brown,A.L & Day,J.D. (1983). Macrorules for Summarizing Texts: the developmet of Expertice. Urbana-Champaign: center for the study of Reading.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or Foreign Language. United States: Heinle & Heinle.
Chamot, A. (1995). Implementig the Cognitive Academic Language Approach CALLA in Arlington, Virginia. The Bilingual Research Journal, Vol. 19, No.3 , 379-394.
Chamot, A. (2004). Issues in Langauge learning Strategy research and Teaching. Journal of Foreign langauge Teaching , 14-26.
Chamot, A.U., Dale,M., O'Malley, J.M. & Spanos, G.A. (1992). Learning and Problem Solving Strategies of ESL students. Bilingual Research Journal , 1-34.
Chastain, K. (1988). Developing Second Language Skills: Theory and Practice. Florida: Orlando.
Chimbganda, A. B. (2006). A Study of the Summarization Strategies Used by ESL First Year Science Students at the University of Botswana. Zimbawe: unpublished thesis.
Cohen, A. (2001-05). Preparing teachers for styles- and strategies - based instruction. International conference on langauage teacher education. U.S.: university of Minesota.
Cohen,A & S. J. Weaver. (1998). Strategies-based Instruction for second language learners. In W. R. Jacobs, Learners and language learning. Anthology Series 39 (pp. 1-25). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Langauge Centre.
Cohen,A.D & Weaver,S.L. (2005). Styles and Strategies-Based Instruction: A Teachers' Guide. University of Minnesota: unpublished working papers.
Ellis and Sinclair. (1989). Learning to learn English. CUP: Teachers' Book, P.6-7.
Flower,W.S & Coe,N. (1976). Nelson English Language Tests. London: Butler and Tanner Ltd.
Graham, S. & Perin, D. (2007). Writing Next: Effective Strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high school. New york: Carnegie Corporation.
Graham, S. (2005). Teaching writing strategies. San Antonio,TX: Presentation at the McGraw-Hill/SRA Booth at the International Reading Association Conference.
Graham, S.& Harris, K.R. (2005). Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching students with Learning Difficulties. London: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.
Grenfell, M. a. (1999). Modern Languages ad Learning Strategies:In theory and practice. London: Routledge.
Hadley, A. O. (1993). Teaching Language in Context. Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.
Hosenfeld, C., Arnold, V., Kirchofer, J., Lanciura, J. and Wilson, L. (1981). Second language reading: a curricular sequence for teaching reading strategies. Foreign Language Annals 14 (5) , 415-22.
Idris, N., Baba, S. and Abdullah, R. (2008). Using Huristic Rules from Sentence Decomposition of Experts' Summaries to Detect Students' Summarizing Strategies. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences 2;1 , 28-32.
Jurkovic, V. (2010). Effect of Explict language learning strategy instruction on language-test and self-assessment scores. English language Teaching(CCSE).Vol.3,No.1 , 16-27.
Knudson, R. (1998). College students' writing : An assessment of competence. Journal of Educational Research, 92(1) , 13-20.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding Language Teaching, from Method to Postmethod. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Lane,K.L , Harris, K.R , Graham,S , Weisenbach, J.L ,Brindle, M & Morphy, P. (2008). The Effects of Self-Regualted Strategy Development on the Writing Performance of Second-grade students with Behavioral and Writing Difficulties. The Journal of Special Eduaction, Vol.41, No.4 , 234-253.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lee, Y. (2010). Coping and summarizing: Possible tolls to develop english reading and writing for university students of different proficiency levels in Korea. U.S.A: UMI, Dissertation Publishing.
Lougheed, L. (2008). Writing for TOEFL iBT. U.S.A: Barron's Educational series, Inc.
McMullen, M. (2009). Using language learning Strategies to improve the writing skills of Saudi EFL students: Will it really work? ScienceDirect , 418-433.
Mousapour Negari, G. (2011). A study on strategy instruction and EFL learners' writing skill. International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 1, No. 2 , 299-307.
Naiman,N., Frohlich, M., Stern,H.H and Todesco,A. (1996). The Good Langauge Learner. Canada: The Ontorio Institute for Studies in Education.
Nunan, D. (2001). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publication.
O'Malley,J.M & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Langauge Acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What every teacher should know. New york: Newbury House Publishers.
Reidle, C. (2011). How to get the most from summarizing strategies? TEXAS SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT CONFERENCE 2011 (pp. 1-5). Texas: unpublished.
Richards,J.C & Schmidt,R. (2002. Third Edition). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching And Applied Linguistics. U.K: Pearson Education Limited.
Romero Perez J.F., Bandera E.E., Leon I.R.& Cervan, R.L. (2003). Application of a written composition and reading comprehension program in primary education students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational psychology No.1 , 57-78.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the " good langauge learner" can teach us. TESOL Quarterly , 41-51.
Stern, H. H. (1992). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weigle, S. C. (2002). Assessing writing. U.K: Cambridge University Press.
Wenden, A. L. (1991). Metacognitive strategies in L2 Writing. In J. Alatis, Georgetown university Round table on Langauge and Linguistics (pp. 302-322). Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.
White, R., & V. Arndt. (1991). Process Writing. London: Longman.
Browse journals by subject