Archive




Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2015, Page: 313-322
Internal and External Factors Affecting Learning English as a Foreign Language
Soheil Mahmoudi, Department of English Language, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran
Asgar Mahmoudi, Department of English Language, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran
Received: Aug. 25, 2015;       Accepted: Sep. 8, 2015;       Published: Sep. 17, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijll.20150305.16      View  24912      Downloads  565
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of internal and external factors on learning English as a foreign language from Iranian EFL learners’ points of view. Copies of a 30-item Lickert-scale questionnaire, addressing internal and external factors or principle components, were distributed among about 140 postgraduate students of ELT in three universities in Iran. The collected data were then subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA). The findings revealed that while internal and external components are distinguishable, many of the variables do not heavily load on the principle component to which they theoretically belong. After separating the non-correlating variables it became clear that most of these variables are very important variables. Further analysis indicated that it is possible to divide internal variables to cognitive and affective and external variables to environmental and curricular. The conclusion reached was that the importance of variables should not be judged based on their nature but based on the importance accorded to them by the respondents. It was also concluded that extreme attention paid to internal variables should be balanced against external variables.
Keywords
Principle Component Analysis, Internal Variables, External Variables
To cite this article
Soheil Mahmoudi, Asgar Mahmoudi, Internal and External Factors Affecting Learning English as a Foreign Language, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 313-322. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20150305.16
Reference
[1]
Attitude. (2009). In Encyclopedia Wikipedia online. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia,org/second_language_acquisition/attitue.
[2]
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5th ed.). New York: Pearson Education, Inc.
[3]
Brown, J. D. (1995). The elements of language curriculum. Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
[4]
Cheng, H., & Dӧrnyei, Z. (2007). The use of motivational strategies in language instruction: the case of EFL teaching in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 153–174.
[5]
Cohen, A. D. (2010). Focus on language learner: Style, strategies, and motivation. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics (2nd ed.). London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.
[6]
Dӧrnyei, Z. and Csizer, K. (1998). Ten commandments for motivating language learners: Results of an empirical study. Language Teaching Research, 2(3), 203–229.
[7]
Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
[8]
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications Ltd.
[9]
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
[10]
Gass, S., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second language acquisition (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.
[11]
Ismaili, M., (2013). The effectiveness of using movies in the EFL classroom: A study conducted at South East European University. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2 (4), 110–118.
[12]
Karim, K. (2003). First language (L1) influence on second language (L2) reading: The role of transfer. Proceedings of the 19th Northwest Linguistics Conference. (pp. 324¬–347). Victoria, B.C.: Victoria.
[13]
Khanchali, M., & Zidat, A. (2011). The impact of the Internet on the development of students’ writing. Revue des Sciences Humaines 21, 51–62.
[14]
Kinginger, C., & Farrell, K. (2004). Assessing development of meta-pragmatic awareness in study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 19–42.
[15]
Lewis, M., & Hill, J. (1985). Practical techniques for language teaching. London: Language Teaching Publications.
[16]
Madrid, D. (1995). Interanl and external factors in language teaching. Actas de las 1I Jornadas de Estudios Ingleses. Universidad de Jaen, 2 (2), 59–82.
[17]
Nation, I. S. P., & Macalister, J (2010). Language curriculum design. New York: Routledge.
[18]
Nunan, D. (1988). Syllabus design. New York: Oxford University Press.
[19]
Nurul Islam, M. (2011). Independent English learning through the Internet. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2 (5), 1080–1085.
[20]
Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. London: Hodder Education.
[21]
Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual. New York: Open University Press.
[22]
Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
[23]
Robinson, P., & Ellis, N. C. (2008). An introduction to cognitive linguistics, second language acquisition, and language instruction. In P. Robinson, & N. C. Ellis (Eds.). Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition. New York: Routledge.
[24]
Segalowitz, N. (1986). Skilled reading in the second language. In J. Vaid (Ed.). Language Processing in bilinguals: Psycholinguistic and Neuropsychological Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[25]
Siegel, J. (2003). Social context. In C. J. Doughthy, & M. H. Long (Eds.). The handbook of second language acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[26]
Stipek, D. J. (2002). Motivation to learn: Integrating theory and practice (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
[27]
White, R. (1988). The ELT curriculum: Design, innovation and management. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.
[28]
Woolfolk, A. E., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2003). Educational Psychology (2nd ed.). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada Inc.
Browse journals by subject