Volume 5, Issue 5, September 2017, Page: 143-150
Reading Profiles in Indonesian Context: Concurrent Protocol Analysis
Abidin Pammu, English Department, Faculty of Cultural Studies Hasanuddin Univeristy, Makassar, Indonesia
Received: Oct. 25, 2016;       Accepted: Aug. 9, 2017;       Published: Sep. 7, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijll.20170505.14      View  2313      Downloads  145
Verbal protocols have been used to construct proposition about cognitive process in language learning and reading process. Despite extensive development of cognitive –based research in reading strategies, revelations of cognitive process as well as its relation to proficiency are still inconclusive and more studies are still needed to venture into this field. There is a need to add existing literature in order to refresh current inconsistency regarding the relationship between proficiency and reading strategy. The paper reports the findings of a case study research at one of public university in Makassar, Indonesia. Five less proficient learners at English Department, Hasanuddin University participated in a six-weeks training. The verbal reports were recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed qualitatively by means of interpretative paradigm. Findings showed that less proficient EFL learners performed wide range of strategies, such as skimming, as well as compensation strategy of code-switching, and sounding out words to help their comprehension process. These learners tended to employ those strategies in less efficient manner so as to read the text line by line. Variability in the use of strategies did not fully support these learners’ comprehension over the text as indicated in the way they approached the tasks as well as their performance results in task completion. Lexical problem was indicative to account for their comprehension problem as shown in their report for willing to use ssupport strategy, such as the use of dictionary. Overall, the less proficient learners performed almost all of the important reading strategies commonly practiced by the proficient learners of ESL background. The findings strengthen previous proposition that no consensus can be drawn between certain pattern of strategy use in relation to proficiency level. The finding confirmsan emerging need of reading strategy instruction in order to generate strategic reading behaviour in these learners.
Verbal Reports, Less Proficient Learners, Cognitive Reading Strategies, Cognitive Process, Strategy Instruction
To cite this article
Abidin Pammu, Reading Profiles in Indonesian Context: Concurrent Protocol Analysis, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 143-150. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20170505.14
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abidin Pammu; Zaini Amir; Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohd Maasum. (2013). Metacognitive Reading Strategies of Less Proficient Tertiary Learners: A Case Study of EFL Learners at a Public University in Makassar, Indonesia. Sollsintec Proceding 2013.
Abidin Pammu, Zaini Amir, Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohd Maasum. 2012. Metacognitive awareness in reading strategies: A case study of proficient learners at Hasanuddin University, Indonesia. ICOSH 2012 Proceeding. UKM. Bangi.
Alvermann, D. E., & Phelps. S. F. (2002). Content reading and literacy. Succeeding intoday’s diverse classrooms. (3rd Ed.). London: Allyn and Bacon. Language Acquisition. USA. Cambridge University Press.
Anderson, J. R. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications. 2nd ed. New York. Freeman.
Bernhardt, E. B. (1991). Reading Development in Second Language. New Jersey. Alex Publishing Corporation.
Brown, R., Pressley, M., VanMeter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategy instruction with low-achieving secondgrade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 18–37.
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi & Widiati, Utami. (2006). The teaching of EFL reading in the Indonesian context: The state of the art. TEFLIN Journal, Volume 17, Number1, February 2006.
Call, M. E. (1985). Auditory short term memory, listening comprehension and the input hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly 19:765-781.
Carrell, P. L. (1998). Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. New York. Longman.
Ericson, K. A. & Simon, H. A. (1984). Protocol Analysis. In Faerch, C. & Kasper, G. (1987). Introspection in Second Language Research. England. Multilinguals Ltd.
Erna Iftanti. 2012. A Survey of the English reading habits. TEFLIN Journal, Volume 23, Number 2, July 2012.
Gardner, R. C. & Mac Intyre, P. D. (1991). An instrumental motivation in language study: Who says it isn't effective? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 266-272.
Graham, Suzanne. (2007). Learner strategies and self-efficacy:Making the connection. Language Learning Journal. Vol.35 No.1 June 2007. pp, 81-93
Grenfell, Michael. 2007. Language learner strategies. Language Learning Journal. Vol.35 No.1 June 2007, pp.5-7
Gunawan, M. Handi. 2008. Teachers’ understanding of EFL principles & their ability to apply the principles in teaching practice. Paper on “globalizing Asia”: The role of ELT. The 6th ASIA TEFL International Conference. Sanur. Bali (1-3) August 2008.
Hajibah Osman. (2004). Genre based instructions for ESP. The English Teacher. XXXIII, 13-29.
Hamra, A. (1996). Developing questioning competencies through radio reading. Journal Jaringan. 1 (3): 195-199.
Jariah Mohd Jan & Rosli Talif. (2005). Questioning strategies and the construction of context in classroom talk. The English Teacher, XXXIV, 76-89.
Jitendra, Asha K., Burges, Clare, Gajria, Meenakshi. (2011). Cognitive strategy instruction for improving expository text comprehension of students with learning disabilities. Exceptional children. Winter 2011. Vol.77; 2 Pro Quest P.135.
Juliana Othman; Abu Bakar Nordin.(2013). MUET as a predictor of academic achievement in ESL teacher education. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. Volume 13(1), February 2013.
Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (1987). Thepsychology of reading and language comprehension. In Bernhardt, E. B. 1991. Reading Development in Second Language: Theoretical, Empirical, & Classroom Perspectives. New Jersery. Ablex Publising Corporation.
Kligner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Arguelles, M. E., Hughes, M. T., Leftwis, S. A. (2004). Collabvorative strategic reading: ‘Real Word’ lesson from classroom teacher, remedial and special education, 25. 291-302.
Koo Yew Lie & Peter Kell (2006). Language, literacy and education in diverse contexts:Theory, research and practice. 3L. Journal of Language Teaching, Linguistics & Literature. Vol.11 2006.
Kweldju, S. (2001). Vocabulary and lexicogramatical unit: Graduate students’ main problems in reading their textbooks. Linguitic Indonesia journal ilmiah masyarakat linguistic Indonesia. 1: 35-56.
Liando Nihta, V. F. (2000). Some perspectives in improving English as a foreign language program in Indonesian schools. Paper in TEFLIN Conference. The 48th International TEFLIN Conference. Jakarta.
Lie, Anita. (2007). Education policy and EFL curriculum in Indonesia: Between the commitment to competence and the quest for higher test score. TEFLIN Journal: 8 (1) 1-1.
Lynch, B., & Hudson, T. (1991). EST reading. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), TeachingEnglish as a second or foreign language (2nd ed.) (pp. 216-232). Boston: Heinle & Heinle. (1) 1-1.
Mc-Cardle, P. S., Scarabough, P. & Catts, H. W. (2001). Predicting, explaining, and preventing children’s reading difficulties. Learning disabilities research & practice, 16, 230-239.
Mercer, Sarah & Ryan, Stephen. 2011. A Mindset for EFL:Learners’ beliefs about the role of natural talent. ELT Journal. Vol.64/4 October 2010.
Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan; Mak Kem Seng; Ooi Ae Kee. (2010). Reader-text transaction in text comprehension. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. Volume 10(3)2010.
National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects. (2006). Defining reading proficiency for accessible assessments: Some guiding principles and issues. Minneapolis, MN: Author.
Norizah Mohd. Noor. (2010). ESL learners’ reading approaches of an academic expository text.3L The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies Vol. 16 (2) 2010.
O’Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U. (1999). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. USA. Cambridge University Press.
Oxford & Nyikos, M. (2001). Variables affecting language learning strategies. Asian Journal of ELT. Vol. 11. 2001.
Ozek, Y. & Civelek, M. (2007). A study on the use of cognitive reading strategies by ELT students. The Asian EFL Journal. Professional Teachers Articles. August 2006.
Pearson, P. D., & Gallagher, M. C. (1992). The instruction of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8(3), 317-344.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Second language teacher education today. SAGE publication. Vol. 39(2) 158-177. RELC Singapore.
Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research, 66(2), 181.
Shorey, R. & Mokhtari, R. (2001). Differences in the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System. 29:431-449.
Silberstein, S. (1987). Let’s take another look at reading: Twenty-five years of reading instruction. Language Teaching Forum, 25(4): 18-35.
Simpson, M. L. & Rush, L. (2003). College students’ beliefs, strategy employment, transfer, and academic performance: An examination across three academic disciplines. Journal of College Reading and Learning. 33 (2), 146-156.
Soewartono. (2008). The strategies of the minority: Success story of secondary better performing learners of EFL. Paper presented in 6th ASIA TEFL. 1-3 August 2008. Sanur. Bali. Indonesia.
Syatriana, E. (1998). The levels of reading comprehension of the fifth semester students of STKIP YPUP Makassar. Unpublished Sarjana Thesis. Makassar.
Shuyun, L. & Munby, H. (1996). Metacognitive strategies in second language academic reading: a qualitative investigation. English for Specific Purposes, 15(3), 199-216.
Walters, Sue. 2007. Researching Bangladeshi pupils’ strategies for learning to read in (UK) primary school settings. Language Learning Journal. Vol.35 No.1 June 2007.
Whitehead, J. (2007). The British Council and English Language in East Asia: Setting the Context. In Primary Innovations Regional Seminar. A collection of papers. Hanoi. The British Council.
William & Burden. (1997). Cited in Ozek, Y. & Civelek, M. 2007. A study on the use of cognitive reading strategies by ELT students. The Asian EFL Journal. Professional Teachers Articles. August 2006.
Browse journals by subject