Volume 8, Issue 3, May 2020, Page: 108-114
Language Policies Under Zhu Yuanzhang and Zhu Di Regimes: A Comparative Perspective
Chao Rui, School of Liberal Arts, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai’an, China
Received: Jun. 5, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 9, 2019;       Published: Jun. 15, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijll.20200803.13      View  39      Downloads  24
This study attempts to examine the differences of the language policies formulation and implementation during the two significant early periods of Ming dynasty (1368-1644). It uses a historical comparative perspective to understand the processes involved in language change. In order to deal with the relationship between Mongolian and Chinese and to develop a system to regulate language use for Chinese, the early Ming government enacted a series of language policies. There were both similarities as well as differences in the policies made by Zhu Yuanzhang and Zhu Di, the two paramount rulers of the Ming dynasty. Whereas the policies during Zhu Yuanzhang time manifested in repression of Mongolian through implementing acculturation measures such as intermarriage between Mongol and Chinese, Zhu Di paid more attention to language harmony characteristic of liberalism toward Mongolian language. Zhu Yuanzhang standardized written language based on the authoritative Nanjing speech. He set up an education system to propagate both a national lingua franca and a vernacular with latter playing important role in promoting the technological advancement. Zhu Di’s regime was also remembered for its efforts in promulgating foreign language education policies, thus on the one hand to establish a rapport with neighboring countries in East Asia, southeast Asia and the inner Western Asia, and on the other hand, to promote the international spread of Chinese language in these regions.
Language Policies in the MING Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, Zhu Di
To cite this article
Chao Rui, Language Policies Under Zhu Yuanzhang and Zhu Di Regimes: A Comparative Perspective, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 108-114. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20200803.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Johannes S. Lotze. 2016. Translation of empire: Mongol Legacy, Language Policy, and the Early Ming World Order, 1368-1453. University of Manchester PHD.
James W, Tollefson. 2014 Language policies in education: critical issues (second edition). In Weiqi Yu (tr.). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press: 79.
Shengli, Zu. 2007. Aspect and its category of pidgin Chinese in Yuan dynasty ——according to the literature of the literal translation studies. Contemporary Linguistics1, 1-13.
Cheng, Gu. 1989. About the Ming empire territory management system. Historical Research 3, 135-149.
Rui, Chao. 2019. The norms of translation in the early years of the Ming dynasty. Journal of Chinese minorities languages 2, 29-40.
Chongxing Li. 2007. From the usage of A-Not-A questions Juging Yuanqu Xuan spoken ingredienst in Ming dynasty. Studies of Language 4, 1-6.
Jianqiang, Bao & Chengxuan Hu. 2010. The version and collation about Thirty sorts of Yuankan Zaju. Journal of Northwest Normal University 1, 44-49.
Zhiwei, Lu. 1988. Modern Chinese phonology collected papers by Lu Zhiwei. Beijing: The Commercial Press: 1.
Baokui, Ye. 2001. The phonetic of mandarin in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Xiamen: Xiamen University Press: 27.
Rezhake Maitiniyazi. 1996. Translation history about Xiyu. Urumq: Xinjiang University Press: 188.
L. Bouvat. 1935. Timur empire. In Chengjun Feng (tr.). Shanghai: The Commercial Press: 78-79.
Rui, Chao. 2018. Study on language policy and planning in Ming dynasty. Nanjing: Nanjing University Press: 67.
Browse journals by subject